About Dry Eye
Dry Eye, or keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), is an uncomfortable and sometimes painful medical condition that affects 20 million people nationwide.1 The condition can complicate everyday activities that require prolonged use of the eyes, including driving, reading, or even watching television.2
Tears lubricate, nourish, and cleanse the ocular surface. The production and turnover of tears is necessary for a healthy tear film.3 There are 2 major classifications of Dry Eye4:
- Aqueous tear-deficient Dry Eye, due to tear hyposecretion, primarily by the
- Evaporative Dry Eye, due to the hyperevaporation of water from the ocular surface
Dry Eye develops on the ocular surface as a result of tear film instability, leaving the cornea and conjunctiva unprotected.3,4 The tear film comprises of 3 layers3,5:
- Mucin—the inner layer, produced by goblet cells, wets the corneal surface and enables the tear film to spread, providing even protection over the ocular surface
- Aqueous—the middle layer, consisting mostly of water, carries oxygen and other nutrients to the cornea and clears the ocular surface of any bacteria or debris
- Lipid—the outer layer, consisting of oils from meibomian glands, covers the aqueous layer and slows the evaporation process
The equilibrium of these 3 layers is necessary for a healthy tear film.3 The lacrimal glands, eye lids, and ocular surface work together to maintain this equilibrium. Any imbalance to these components can potentially impair the tear film and result in Dry Eye.4
Click the following links for more information about Dry Eye:
- Symptoms, Causes, and Diagnosis of Dry Eye
- Treatments for Dry Eye, including prescription LACRISERT®
Indications and Usage
LACRISERT® is indicated in patients with moderate to severe Dry Eye syndromes, including keratoconjunctivitis sicca. LACRISERT® is indicated especially in patients who remain symptomatic after an adequate trial of therapy with artificial tear solutions. LACRISERT® is also indicated for patients with exposure keratitis, decreased corneal sensitivity, and recurrent corneal erosions.
Important Safety Information
LACRISERT® is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to hydroxypropyl cellulose. Instructions for inserting and removing LACRISERT® should be carefully followed. If improperly placed, LACRISERT® may result in corneal abrasion. Because LACRISERT® may cause transient blurred vision, patients should be instructed to exercise caution when driving or operating machinery. Patients should be cautioned against rubbing the eye(s) containing LACRISERT®.
The following adverse reactions have been reported, but were in most instances, mild and temporary: transient blurring of vision, ocular discomfort or irritation, matting or stickiness of eyelashes, photophobia, hypersensitivity, eyelid edema, and hyperemia.
References: 1. Market Scope. Report on the Global Dry Eye Market. St. Louis, MO: Market Scope; July 2004. 2. Miljanovic B, Dana R, Sullivan DA, Schaumberg DA. Impact of dry eye syndrome on vision related quality of life. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143(3):409-415. 3. Rolando M, Zierhut M. The ocular surface and tear film and their dysfunction in dry eye disease. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001;45(Suppl 2):S203-S210. 4. The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the Definition and Classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye Workshop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007;5(2):75-92. Available at: http://www.tearfilm.org/dewsreport. Accessed January 5, 2009. 5. Katz JI, Kaufman HE, Breslin C, Katz IM. Slow-release artificial tears and the treatment of keratitis sicca. Ophthalmology. 1978;85(8):787-793.